Water Treatment     Typical RO Plant
Reverse osmosis
Demineraliser plants
Ultra Filtration
Pressure Sand filters
Activated Carbon Filter
Iron removal Filters etc.
Reverse Osmosis System
This system shall be capable for removal of total dissolved by the principle of “Reverse Osmosis” at the Salt rejection rate of 95 – 99%. This system consists of an epoxy coated Corrosion resistant and aesthetic looking structural steel skid for mounting of high pressure tubes with spiral wound membrane elements for each stream. Necessary control valves are to be provided with required instrumentation for operating & performing parameters. Pressure gauges are to be provided for pressure indication and control of complete R.O. System. An online / by pass type of flow indicator at product & brine pipe work are to be provided for controlling desired flow rate & recovery. For monitoring product water quality an online conductivity indicator is to be provided.
RO Plant with Blending
RO can be used for reduction of TDS

Softener reduces the scale formation on the membranes

Blending line reduces the unnecessary power cost for producing desired quality of water if the outlet quality of the water is very low in TDS.
Ultra Filtration  
Ultra filtration is a separation process using membranes with pore sizes in the range of 0.1 to 0.001 micron. Typically, ultra filtration will remove high molecular-weight substances, colloidal materials, and organic and inorganic polymeric molecules. Low molecular-weight organics and ions such as sodium, calcium, magnesium chloride, and sulfate are not removed. Because only high-molecular weight species are removed, the osmotic pressure differential across the membrane surface is negligible. Low applied pressures are therefore sufficient to achieve high flux rates from an ultra filtration membrane. Flux of a membrane is defined as the amount of permeate produced per unit area of membrane surface per unit time. Generally flux is expressed as gallons per square foot per day (GFD) or as cubic meters per square meters per day.

Ultra filtration membranes can have extremely high fluxes but in most practical applications the flux varies between 50 and 200 GFD at an operating pressure of about 50 psig in contrast, reverse osmosis membranes only produce between 10 to 30 GFD at 200 to 400 psig.
Ultra filter vs. Conventional Filter
Ultra filtration, like reverse osmosis, is a cross-flow separation process. Here liquid stream to be treated flows tangentially along the membrane surface, thereby producing two streams. The stream of liquid that comes through the membrane is called permeate. The type and amount of species left in the permeate will depend on the characteristics of the membrane, the operating conditions, and the quality of feed. The other liquid stream is called concentrate and gets progressively concentrated in those species removed by the membrane. In cross-flow separation, therefore, the membrane itself does not act as a collector of ions, molecules, or colloids but merely as a barrier to these species.

Conventional filters such as media filters or cartridge filters, on the other hand, only remove suspended solids by trapping these in the pores of the filter-media. These filters therefore act as depositories of suspended solids and have to be cleaned or replaced frequently. Conventional filters are used upstream from the membrane system to remove relatively large suspended solids and to let the membrane do the job of removing fine particles and dissolved solids. In ultra filtration, for many applications, no prefilter are used and ultra filtration modules concentrate all of the suspended and emulsified materials.
Concentration Polarization
When a UF membrane is used for a separation, the concentration of any species being removed is higher near the membrane surface than it is in the bulk of the stream. This condition is known as concentration polarization and exists in all ultra filtration and reverse osmosis separations. The result of concentration polarization is the formation of a boundary layer of substantially high concentration of substances being removed by the membrane. The thickness of the layer and its concentration depend on the mass of transfer conditions that exist in the membrane system.

Membrane flux and feed flow velocity are both important in controlling the thickness and the concentration in the boundary layer. The boundary layer impedes the flow of water through the membrane and the high concentration of species in the boundary layer produces a permeate of inferior quality in ultra filtration applications relatively high fluid velocities are maintained along the membrane surface to reduce the concentration polarization effect.
Recovery of an ultra filtration system is defined as the percentage of the feed water that is converted into the permeate, or OR
Ultra filtration Membranes Configuration
Ultra filtration Membrane modules come in plate-and-frame, spiral-wound, and tubular configurations. All configurations have been used successfully in different process applications. Each configuration is specially suited for some specific applications and there are many applications where more than one configuration is appropriate. For high purity water, spiral-wound and capillary configurations are generally used. The configuration selected depends on the type and concentration of colloidal material or emulsion. For more concentrated solutions, more open configurations like plate-and-frame and tubular are used. In all configurations the optimum system design must take into consideration the flow velocity, pressure drop, power consumption, membrane fouling and module cost.
Membrane Materials
A variety of materials have been used for commercial ultra filtration membranes, but polysulfone and cellulose acetate are the most common. Recently thin-film composite ultra filtration membranes have been marketed. For high purity water applications the membrane module materials must be compatible with chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide used in sanitizing the membranes on a periodic basis.
Molecular-Weight Cutoff
Pore sizes for ultra filtration membranes range between 0.001 and 0.1 micron.  However, it is more customary to categorize membranes by molecular-weight cutoff.  For instance, a membrane that removes dissolved solids with molecular weights of 10,000 and higher has a molecular weight cutoff of 10,000.  Obviously, different membranes even with the same molecular-weight cut off, will have different pore size distribution.  In other words, different membranes may remove species of different molecular weights to different degrees.  Nevertheless, molecular-weight cutoff serves as a useful guide when selecting a membrane for a particular application.
Factors Affecting the Performance of Ultra filtration
There are several factors that can affect the performance of an ultra filtration system. A brief discussion of these is given here.

Flow across the Membrane Surface. The permeate rate increases with the flow velocity of the liquid across the membrane surface. Flow velocity if especially critical for liquids containing emulsions or suspensions. Higher flow also means higher energy consumption and larger pumps. Increasing the flow velocity also reduces the fouling of the membrane surface. Generally, an optimum flow velocity is arrived at by a compromise between the pump horsepower and increase in permeate rate.
Operating Pressure.
Permeate rate is directly proportional to the applied pressure across the membrane surface. However, due to increased fouling and compaction, the operating pressures rarely exceed 100 psig and are generally around 50 psig. In some of the capillary-type ultra filtration membrane modules the operating pressures are even lower due to the physical strength limitation imposed by the membrane module.
Operating Temperature. 
Permeate rates increase with increasing temperature. However, temperature generally is not a controlled variable. It is important to know the effect of temperature on membrane flux in order to distinguish between drop in permeate due to a drop in temperature and the effect of other parameters.
Performance of Ultra filtration Systems
In high purity water systems, ultra filtration is slowly replacing the traditional 0.2-micron cartridge filters. In Japan, practically all of the semiconductor industry follows this practice. An ultra filtration membrane with a molecular-weight cutoff of 10,000 has a nominal pore size of 0.003 micron. When an ultra filtration membrane is used instead of a 0.2-micron cartridge filter, particle removal efficiency is greatly improved. In addition, ultra filtration membranes are not susceptible to the problem of bacteria growing through them, as is the case with 0.2-micron filters.

Ultra filter used in the study had a molecular-weight cutoff of 100,000- (pore size 0.006 micron). As the requirements for the quality of high purity water become more stringent, we can expect to see an increasing use of ultra filtration as a final filter.
Operation and Maintenance
Ultra filtration system operation and maintenance is similar to that of reverse osmosis systems. Daily records of feed and permeate flow, feed pressure and temperature, and pressure drop across the system should be kept. Membranes should be cleaned when the system permeate rate drops by 10% or more. Feed flow is critical to the operation of ultra filtration systems. A drop in feed flow may be due to a problem in the prefilter (if any), with the flow control valve, or with the pump itself. When the system is shut down for more than two days, a bactericide should be circulated through the membranes. At restart, permeate should be diverted to drain until all the bactericide is removed from the water.

Ultra filtration will find an increasing application in the production of high purity water. The basic principles outlined here should help in the understanding and use of this technology.

This is considered as pretreatment for the RO Plant and the Pore size is in the range 0.04microns and it removes majority of microbial and suspended impurities


This is for removing all the charged ions from the water with the help of resins. It leaves no suspended or dissolved solids and it is very pure form of water.


The softener is same type of vessel like sand filter with Softener resin which exchanges the sodium ions for calcium and magnesium ions.
The calcium and magnesium ions if present in large who account for the hardness of the raw untreated water it will form scale on the surface of the membranes there by reduction in output quality and quantity.

Pressure sand filter

Pressure sand filter with sand as media used sand of two different carefully selected sizes mixed intimately together. Unlike conventional sand filters using a single grade of sand, this special media permits flow velocities nearly three times those used in conventional filters this filter is called the multi grade filter. This filter is used for removal of suspended solids
Activated carbon filter

The Activated Carbon Filter is used to de chlorinate a raw water that has been chlorinated and also some time for removal of organic impurities depending of the suspended mater content in the water to be filtrated it can be used either by itself following a sand filter.

Iron Removal Filter

The Iron removal filter having a special media called Everzit is a special grade of Iron Removal media processed to provide excellent catalytic properties to remove dissolved iron from ground water. Everzit is an insoluble media which oxidizes dissolved ferrous iron (Fe++) in to insoluble ferric iron (Fe+++) Back wash removes trapped iron particles from the bed.

Sewage Water Treatment Plants
Sewage Treatment Plants - with Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Activated Sludge Process (ASP), Submerged Aerated Fixed Film (SAFF), Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)
Sequencing Batch reactor.

Tolerate variable hydraulic loads – Mixed liquor suspended solids cannot be washed away by hydraulic surge since effluent withdrawal is typically accomplished in separate phase following termination of flow to each reactor.

Tolerate variable organic loads - Each influent (wastewater input) liquid batch is diluted with previous cycle reactor content.

Controls filamentous growth – Filamentous microorganisms are control by creating anoxic conditions during fill phase.

Provide ideal conditions for settling - Since there is no flow to the reactor during settling and no mechanical sludge collection device “stirring” provided ideal conditions for settling.
Benefits of SBR
   1. It is true reactor treatment system and able to provide consistent effluent quality to desired limits.

   2. Return Activated sludge piping is eliminated.

   3.Lower Installation costs- Maximum all operation required in effluent treatment are carried out in a single reactor it eliminates need of       separate structure for each unit operation this generally result in to lower construction and installation cost.

   4. Lowest electrical operating cost- Electricity consumption per Kg BOD destroyed is around 1.1 KW as compare to other processes (1.7 KW        with conventional activated sludge process).
Unrivalled effluent quality

  Reduces main pollutants including ammonia by 96%

  Reduces phosphates by 88%

  Batch system eliminates peak surges.

  Automatic “Holiday Mode" aeration cycle.

  Powered only by a small air compressor

The aim of the development program me was to design a unit which was not only very robust and reliable but which would provide outstanding effluent quality without the need for expensive add on equipment and would also overcome technical problems - (such as media clogging and peak surges through the bio-zone), which most current designs have failed to adequately address.

SBR out-performs its rivals in almost every respect and that it has the capability to meet even the most onerous effluent requirement.
Technical information
The SBR is an advanced biological aeration type treatment plant designed to produce a very high quality of final effluent in addition to overcoming several of the common problems associated with packaged domestic sewage treatment units.
Common problems which can occur are:
Peak surges flow (i.e. mornings and evenings) can force effluent through the plant before it has had sufficient treatment time.

Fixed film types, which have a "media" matrix, can suffer from media blockage because of excessive bacteria growth.

Replacement/maintenance of the media material may be required at regular intervals There are no moving parts or electrical components within the tank. All functions within the tank are operated by air power generated by a small compressor which is housed in a remote kiosk, allowing maintenance to be carried out safely and easily The bacteria receive a high quality air supply and is completely mixed and aerated by the high volume bubble diffuser.

Domestic Applications
   a) Municipal

   b) Resorts

   c) Institutions
Activated Sludge Process
  Diverse; can be used for one household up to a huge plant

  Removes organics

  Oxidation and Nitrification achieved

  Biological nitrification occurs without adding chemicals due to the presence of nitrogenous bacteria.

  Biological Phosphorus removal

  Solids/ Liquids separation

  Stabilization of sludge

  Capable of removing ~ 97% of suspended solids

  The most widely used wastewater treatment process
  Does not remove color from industrial wastes and may increase the color through formation of highly colored intermediates through   oxidation.

  Does not remove nutrients, tertiary treatment is necessary.

  Problem of getting well settled sludge.

  Recycle biomass keeps high biomass keeps high biomass concentration in aeration tanks allowing it to be performed in technologically   acceptable detention times
  1. Large common treatment plant like Municipal Corporation, Large Educational Institutions etc.

  2. Unskilled labor doing operation and maintenance.

  3. Available space is not a constrain.
Moving Bed Bio Reactor Advantages
Moving bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) offers an economically solution for wastewater treatment if the "bulk" of the pollution load must be disposed of (as means of cost reduction) or if applicable discharge regulations are not as strict.

With this application we offer advanced wastewater treatment solutions for the industrial and municipal markets.

These solutions significantly increase the capacity and efficiency of existing wastewater treatment plants, while minimizing the size of new plant deployments.

This method makes it possible to attain good efficiency results of disposal with low energy consumption.

This process is used for the removal of organic substances, nitrification and denitrification.
The MBBR process can be used for a variety of different applications to attain the desired results, depending on the quality of the wastewater and the discharge regulations.
  • Economical and very attractive
  • Compact (saves space) since we have large surface area provided by the media present in the aeration tank there by reducing the space      required for same volume of effluent compared with Extended aeration process.
  • Maintenance-friendly- because there is uniform sludge distribution across three dimensions
  • Strong- It can withstand any shock load since the MLSS available is high compared with ASP
  • High volume load
  • Financial savings on discharge costs
Special advantages are gain at industrial wastewater plants where sedimentation of activated sludge is difficult, such as some applications in the food stuff industry.
In addition to the building of a new system it is also possible to use this technology to upgrade an existing system.
Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are a relatively new wastewater treatment technology which promises exceptional treatment efficiency and a reduced footprint compared to conventional treatment process trains.

MBRs may be particularly well suited to situations in which water recycling is required or desired including satellite reclamation (sewer mining). MBRs are quite simply an activated sludge process in which the conventional secondary clarifier is replaced by a membrane separation process (either microfiltration or ultra filtration).

The MBR can be operated either with or without primary clarification, but always requires fine screening (3 mm or smaller) to protect the membranes from abrasive and stringy waste components (hair in particular). Due to the presence of an absolute barrier for suspended solids, MBRs are able to maintain very high solids concentrations (8,000 to 20,000 mg/L) and solids retention times which allows for smaller aeration basins and high BOD removals.

Since MBR effluent is micro- or ultra-filtration permeate, effluent suspended solids are typically near the detection limit and turbidities are typically less than 0.2 NTU. As with other membrane systems, the most important characteristics are the membrane flux and the membrane permeability both of which are highly temperature dependent (lowest temperature controls design). Flux is often expressed as gallons permeated per day per square foot of membrane area (GFD) and permeability is usually the clean water flux per unit transmembrane pressure (TMP).

With correct process design, MBRs can accomplish the same things as any activated sludge process including BOD removal, nitrification, denitrification, and biological phosphorus removal.
Process Description
The overall objective of the project is to facilitate an increase in water recycling through the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. This is being accomplished over two phases. Phase I consists of a side-by-side pilot test of six different MBR systems to investigate the consistency of water quality, the reliability and the operability of the technology for three different waste streams.

Mainly MBR plants can be customized by deploying pilot testing some of the MBRs for procurement-based design at actual full-scale application sites and/or at permanent locations. Phase II includes a comprehensive study of potential applications for MBRs including satellite reclamation, plant expansions, plant upgrades to facilitate recycling, and decentralized treatment for proposed/new developments.

Modern world with scarcity of water shooting up to an alarming rate requires a series of wastewater treatment applications with minimal waste of recycled water and large water available for reuse MBRs may be feasible.

These include 1) treatment of raw wastewater at pump stations for nearby water recycling applications, 2) treatment of primary effluent to upgrade existing wastewater treatment plants for water recycling, 3) treatment of primary effluent for concurrent nitrogen and phosphorus removal for discharge in environmentally sensitive areas, and 4) treatment of a high-strength solids handling recycle stream for organic and color removal. The study is being conducted in two phases. In the first phase, two or three different waste streams were treated one at a time by the MBRs side-by-side: raw wastewater, high-strength solids handling recycling stream (centrate), and primary effluent.

In the second phase, some of the MBRs will be moved to other locations for pilot testing associated with full-scale design and a countywide MBR application feasibility study will be conducted. Under each operating condition in Phase I, the following parameters are being evaluated for each MBR wastewater treatment system: 1) basic performance, 2) operation and maintenance requirements, and 3) life cycle treatment costs. One of the key features of the study is that records of operating and maintaining the systems should be preserved for all pilot study.
Different Membrane Available for treatment
Each vendor employs somewhat different technologies including membrane configuration and pore size
  • US Filter – microfiber membranes, 0.4 ΅m pore size, vertical arrangement in off-line tank, air scour and backpulsing;
  • Ionics – microfiber membranes, 0.4 ΅m pore size, horizontal arrangement in aeration tank, air scour and relaxation;
  • Zenon – microfiber membranes, 0.04 ΅m pore size, vertical arrangement in aeration tank, air scour and relaxation and backpulsing);
  • Enviroquip – flat panel membranes, 0.4 ΅m pore size, vertical arrangement in aeration tank, air scour and relaxation;
  • Koch – Hollow fiber membranes, 0.1 ΅m pores, vertical arrangement in membrane tank, intermittent air scour, backflushing;
  • Huber – flat panel membranes, 0.025 mm pore size, vertical arrangement on rotating shaft in aeration tank, air scour and spray wash
MBR units treated raw wastewater with the goal of demonstrating suitability for water recycling and for nitrogen removal. Raw wastewater was conveyed to a head works structure with two alternative fine screens. One of the screens was a static slotted-type screen with 0.5 mm openings and the other screen was a brush-type punched-hole screen with 3 mm openings.( Automatic).
Results and Discussion
MBRs are generally operated by maintaining a target mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) rather than a target solids retention time (SRT).

The MBR pilot units have been operated at MLSS between 6,000 and 16,000 mg/L. We have found that the operation is optimal between 10,000- 12,000 mg/L. We have found that when MLSS was very high, the pilot units were dissolved oxygen limited and nitrification was inhibited.

The MBR units were able to operate at their advertised permeate flux rates of either 10 or 15 gallons/ft2-day. The TMPs of each unit were monitored and were a good indicator of needed cleaning (generally when TMP > -4 psi).

Each of the MBR pilots was Cleaned In Place several times using either a dilute chlorine solution or a dilute acid solution in the event that the chlorine cleaning was inadequate. Cleanings would normally only be required on an annual or semi-annual
The conclusions MBR technologies produce excellent quality permeates suitable for water recycling. There are differences in permeation cycle times, nitrification/gentrification capabilities, required amount of operator attention, membrane cleaning frequency, power requirements, and robustness of the systems. It is apparent that there are many factors other than just water quality that are important in the selection of an MBR system
Outlet water quality
Parameter MBR Conventional Plant
Solids mg/l 0 10-15
COD mg/l <30 40-50
P total with    
Precipitation mg/l <0.1 0.8-1.0
MLSS content in    
Aeration tank g/l <20 <5
MBR Technology vs. Conventional Processes
Improved Water Quality
   • Meets stringent effluent requirements

   • Filters out nearly all solids
Allows Wastewater Reuse
   • As part of a treatment scheme, provides water for potable reuse

   • Reduces wastewater discharge fees and freshwater costs

   • Provides water for non-potable applications where fresh water is in short supply
Lowers Capital Costs
   • Clarifier is not needed

   • Biological step can be scaled down since bacteria concentration is higher
Reduces Plant Space Requirements
   • Footprint is up to 50% smaller than conventional plant

   • Allows for expanded capacity within existing buildings Fewer Operational Problems

   • Bulking and floating sludge problems are avoided
Why MBR Technology?
Reduced Energy Demand
   • Single header and centrally located air nozzles reduce aeration by up to 50%

   • Lowest energy demand of nearly all commercially available MBR modules Reduced Capital Costs

   • Simple pre-screening due to low risk of module clogging • Smaller aeration blowers due to lower air consumption
Higher Reliability
   • More stable operation

   • Single header design practically eliminates clogging at fiber tips

   • Braided fiber reduces risk of fiber breakage • Essentially trouble-free aeration system
Easily Retrofittable to Existing MBRs
   • Few module connections

   • Little need to modify infrastructure

Economical Cleaning and Maintenance

Highly effective air scouring virtually eliminates sludging
Parameter Oxydation Pond Extended Aeration SBR MBR Anaerobic/Aerobic MBBR
Area High High Medium Low Medium Low
Buffer Zone High High Medium Low Medium Low
Capital Cost Low Low Medium High Medium Low
O&M Cost Low High Medium Medium Medium Low
Replacement Cost Low Medium Medium High Medium Low
Oprational Ease Low Low High High High Low
System Parameters comparison
Parameter Extended Aeration Activated Sludge SBR MBBR
Volumetric Loading(kg/m3/d 0.16-0.4 0.32-0.64 0.08-0.24 0.91
Detention Time(hr) 18-36 4-8 8-36 1-2
F/M Ratio(L/d) 0.05-0.15 0.2-0.5 0.05-0.3 1.1
Air Requirement(m3/kgBOD Removed) 90-125 45-90 45-90 50-70
  Recycling systems for Treated Trade Effluent/Treated Sewage utilizing Ultra Filtration and Reverse Osmosis.

  Sea water / Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis systems.

  Process Effluent Treatment Plants.

  All Types of water treatment chemicals like RO Chemicals RO Cleaning, UF cleaning, Biocides, Commercial Grade Hydrochloric acid for   regeneration of DM plants, Hypo Chlorides (NaOCl), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

   All types of Swimming Pools & Pool Chemicals.
Value Added Services
  • AMC for WTP/STP/ETP & Swimming pools

  • Installation & commissioning

  • Onsite Training

  • Operation & Maintenance contracts

  • Engineering consultancy

  • Plumbing design.
Few Chemical Details Chemical Application
1 TCCA 90 Swimming pool
2 Softener 220 Na Softening plant
3 225 H Cat ion resin DM plant
4 NIP anion Type II ............
5 FFIP anion Type -I ............
6 Aqua stat 101 Antiscalant
7 Aqua stat 111 Antiscalant silica based
8 Anthracite ..........
9 Berm media Iron removal filter
10 Sanitizer stabilizer Swimming Pool
We do undertake construction of both Conventional (Civil) & Readymade pools (Galvanized Steel).
OXYTONA offers following equipment to meet the ever growing needs of the Swimming Pool Industry:

   • Residential range of Filters ranging from 400 mm – 1200 mm diameter in FRP bobbin wound. (Technically sturdier than available ordinary       laminated FRP filters)

   • Commercial filters up to 2500 mm diameter both vertical and horizontal with excellent internal distribution systems.

   • Filtration pumps from Ό HP – 10 HP and more in plastic construction.

   • Complete range of pool fittings for residential and commercial swimming pools.

   • Complete range of pool side equipment viz. ladders, diving boards, slides and U V protected gratings.

   • Wide range of underwater lighting and Optical fiber lighting.

   • Recreation items viz. swim jets, mushrooms, curtains etc.

   • Pool disinfection systems viz ozonators, salt chlorinators UV systems etc.

   • Swimming Pool chemicals viz. TCCA and DCCA.

   • Complete range of competition equipment viz. lanes ropes, starting blocks, touch pads, back stroke indicators/flags, false start ropes and       FINA conforming commercial diving boards and stands, electronic score board, life saving equipment, hydraulic chairs etc.

   • Heaters, Heat Pumps, Chillers and Heat Chill Pumps.

   • Prefabricated SPA’s for commercial and residential use.
   • SPA accessories for custom built SPA’s

   • Steam rooms and generators, Sauna cabins and heaters.

   • Shower cubicles or just panels available.

   • Prefabricated Pools (Readymade Pools).

   • Ozone generators starting from 2gms/hr to custom built units of any capacity.
To summarize the above list Oxytona is
The professional water engineering…..
We hope that our applications and services submitted are in line with your project requirements.

In case of any clarification please revert.

Expect to be in association with you in near future.

Thanking you and assuring you of our best service and attention at all times.
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All Rights Reserved.
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